Month: June 2019

Signs And Symptoms Of STDs

Chlamydia is an infection caused by a bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis, which lives exclusively within the cellular cytoplasm and is transmitted by sexual intercourse. Initially considered a virus, due to its nature as an obligatory cellular parasite, in 1966, thanks to the observation with an electron microscope, it proved to be equipped not only with DNA and RNA but also with ribosomes and a membrane typical of bacteria.

Whatever antibiotic therapy is undertaken under medical advice to combat STDs, it is very important to extend it to one’s own or to one’s sexual partners, in order to avoid the spread of infection.

Chlamydia trachomatis infection affects humans only and is transmitted through vaginal, anal and oral sexual relations, through contact with the secretions of the genital mucosa or through the sperm of an infected person. Chlamydia is one of the STDs present in about 3.2% of the population, with prevalence in men (8.4%) compared to women (2.4%).

Sexual habits, therefore, play a decisive role in the incidence of infection. Particularly at risk are young adults and adolescents sexually active and who do not use barrier methods of contraception (such as condoms), which tend to change often sexual partners, who have multiple partners.

What are the symptoms of chlamydia?

Chlamydia is called silent infection. According to a surveillance-sentinel system of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), based on the diagnoses carried out by a network of public specialist centers, more than a third of the carriers are asymptomatic and, among these, the largest share is represented from women and, among women, from non-pregnant women. It is estimated, more presumably, however, that the affected but asymptomatic persons are more than 50%.

When Chlamydia becomes symptomatic, usually 1-3 weeks after the infection, the most frequent clinical picture in both sexes is urethritis, characterized by urinary burning and frequent and painful urination.

In humans it can occur with a urethral secretion of variable color, from white to light gray; in a limited number of cases, there is an acute inflammation of the epididymis with testicular pain and swelling.

In women, the infection of STDs, even when it is symptomatic, can be more subtle and present itself with the characteristics of banal bacterial vaginitis, with the vaginal discharge of the yellowish leucorrhea type, sometimes associated with burning and with eventual postcoital or intermenstrual bleeding.

Tests to diagnose the Chlamydia

To make a diagnosis it is necessary to undergo a test that involves the collection, with a cotton swab, of a small amount of material in the area to be tested (cervix, vagina, penis, anus), to be sent to an analytical laboratory.

Taking A Look At STDs

In men, neglected chlamydia can lead to inflammation of the testicles which, in addition to causing other symptoms can pose a greater risk of infertility. In both men and women, Chlamydia trachomatis can sometimes cause small reddened patches to appear on the glans or, in women, on the vulva, in the vagina, on the cervix or on the anal level. Such lesions, single and generally asymptomatic, are then subjected to ulceration; therefore they regress spontaneously after a few days.

In short, the infection becomes evident, manifesting itself with the enlargement of the inguinal lymph nodes, which are gradually associated with each other giving rise to painful masses topped by purple skin.

If left untreated, the pathological picture, known as venereal lymphogranuloma, further worsens causing fistulation and leaking of purulent material, fever, an extension of infection to various organs, fibrosis and subsequent deformation of the genital area.

Diagnosis of STDs

If chlamydia infection is suspected, it is advisable to contact a doctor as soon as possible. This allows you to carry out an immediate check-up. Only a timely and reliable diagnosis of STDs can help prevent the appearance of more severe complications. The test generally consists of simply taking a cervical, urethral, vaginal or urinary swab, which will then be analyzed in the laboratory.

Currently, analysis techniques are available which, in addition to having sensitivity and specificity now close to 100%, allow obtaining results in a very short time. These tests are based on modern gene amplification techniques (such as PCR, LCR, and TMA) and are therefore able to directly detect the chlamydia genome.

Prevention of STDs

It is unpleasant to say, every time you have sex with a new person it is as if you were doing it also with all the partners with whom you previously had unprotected sex. Since Chlamydia trachomatis is sexually transmitted and can remain quiescent for long periods, it is good to avoid risky relationships, without ever forgetting that the use of condoms greatly reduces the risk of infection by STDs.

For prevention, it would be advisable to have an annual screening for all sexually active women under the age of 25, for those who are younger, but who frequently change sexual partners and all those who are pregnant.

Care and treatment

Fortunately, there are numerous pharmacological treatments able to eradicate chlamydia or infection by STDs, respecting individual sensitivities and contraindications. The most common is based on the administration of a single dose of azithromycin, while a valid alternative is represented by the treatment with doxycycline, which however provides a more lasting intake (7-10 days).

Introduction To Chlamydia Home Testing

When it comes to the prevention of STIs and HIV, always use latex condoms during the entire duration of intercourse (vaginal, anal and oral). Use a latex barrier, such as Dental Dam during oral intercourse and limit the number of sexual partners. The condom is, therefore, the only barrier that prevents the exchange of germs between partners.

It is also advisable to warn your partner if you are diagnosed with Chlamydia so that the risk of infection can be reduced. It is also necessary to make sure that the partners have carried out a check in the last 6 months and are not infected.

If you suspect you are suffering from Chlamydia, contact your doctor as soon as possible or conduct a Chlamydia Home Test. The pathology is curable through antibiotic treatment and in a short time, but if you neglect it can cause important consequences, both in men and women, such as contagion to sexual partners, ectopic pregnancies, pelvic inflammatory disease, male and female infertility.

The same applies to infection of the newborn in cases of pregnancy that can cause eye infections and pneumonia and premature birth. An unhealthy and balanced diet puts the immune system under strain, causing an imbalance of the bacterial flora and consequently benefiting the rooting and proliferation of fungi and bacteria.

Chlamydia, which is the cause of the most common vaginal infections. To prevent intimate infections, a healthy and complete diet is essential to protect the intimate areas from attack by pathogens. To do this, experts recommend a diet rich in the following:

– Dairy products: the lactose which turns into lactic acid, helps maintain the right degree of vaginal acidity by counteracting the onset of infections (the first factor of defense against vaginal infections is acid pH <4.5);
– Fibers: especially contained in fruits and vegetables, they restore the balance of the intestinal bacterial flora;
– Vitamins and minerals: in addition to combating the formation of free radicals, the main responsible for aging skin and the onset of inflammation, help to strengthen the immune system against infections.

To prevent vaginal infections, it is good to combine regular sport with proper nutrition. In sperm, urethral secretions, vaginal secretions, mucous membranes, skin, and blood, there may be several pathogens responsible for the contagion of sexually transmitted diseases.

In addition to Chlamydia, the most common venereal diseases include papillomavirus (HPV), HIV-Aids, genital herpes (HSV), syphilis, candida, gonorrhea, hepatitis B or C (HBV or HCV), trichomoniasis and crabs. A Chlamydia Home Test can help detect infection. Many of these diseases can be prevented through safe sex.